Laminas navarrete online dating Taiwan cam chat to girls live for free no credit card
Each group of fish was fed one of the following diets: diet D1, where 100% of the protein was provided by fish meal and 100% of the oil was provided by fish oil; diet D2, where 50% of the protein was provided by fish meal and 50% was provided by vegetable meal (corn, sunflower and soybean meal); and diet D3, where 50% of the oil was provided by fish oil and 50% was provided by rapeseed oil ().
To evaluate the possible effects of the diets on the intestinal mucosa of the fish, intestines were histologically examined after two months of diet treatment according to a semi-quantitative method (Table S2).
No signs of inflammation were detected in fish fed the three diets and no differences were detected between the families or diet treatments groups (Figure S1, Table S3).
The villous mucosa appeared to be normal in the intestines of all the fish, with the mucosal fold forming long, finger-like structures.
The lamina propria appeared as a thin layer beneath the epithelium.
The sub-epithelial mucosa, located between the basal part of the folds and the stratum compactum, showed a normal widening with no abnormal granulocyte infiltration.
Two parallel approaches were applied on the same samples: transcriptionally active bacterial populations were examined based on RNA analysis and were compared with bacterial populations obtained from DNA analysis.
Comparison of temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) profiles from DNA and RNA showed important differences, indicating that active bacterial populations were better described by RNA analysis.
Results showed that some bacterial groups were significantly (The importance of intestinal bacteria in the nutrition and well being of the host has been established for several animals and was recently demonstrated in fish.
The aim of this study was to use molecular approaches to investigate the extent to which the rainbow trout gut microbiota is affected by the host and the inclusion of vegetable components in the diet.
The overall contribution of the host to the microbiota composition was determined by analyzing full sibling individuals from four different unrelated rainbow trout families, each derived from a single pair of breeders that had been previously identified and classified in a breeding program.
To assess the effects on growth, the body weight of each fish was measured after two months of diet treatment.